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Fruit Evolution: Why Tropical Fruits Are Healthier Than Temperate Fruits

Tropical fruits are the most underrated and neglected superfoods! The evidence why tropical fruits are essential for optimal health is not only found in nutritional studies but is based on human evolution! Let’s explore our unique relationship with exotic fruits and why they are even healthier than temperate fruits.

Tropical fruits are the ultimate superfoods for humans!

Tropical fruits are finally gaining attention for their profound health benefits! People living in the tropics have long known their importance for human nutrition, and a growing community of people living a fruit diet has re-discovered this secret to regeneration: Tropical fruits are superfoods for humans!

Now science confirms the important health-related properties of tropical fruits with mounting evidence and the general consensus about fruits being healthy. Ok, ok, scientists usually do not call them “superfoods”, but a recent review concludes that “Tropical and subtropical fruits may be considered as a very important source of nutrients and bioactive compounds, mainly flavonoids and non-flavonoid phenolics.”(Sayago-Ayerdi et al., 2021).

This study on Brazilian fruits summarizes that “virtually unknown edible tropical fruits present significantly higher antioxidant activity when compared to temperate fruits considered to be good sources of antioxidants.” (Pereira-Netto, 2018). Even the seeds, peels and other plant parts of exotic fruits have functional properties for health (see here) and are used in ethnobotanical medicine.

Read more on the nutritional benefits of tropical fruits here.

What makes tropical fruits so special to humans?

…after all, tropical fruits are not the healthiest food for every species – but for human, they are!

Evolution might give us a simple but fascinating explanation: like our closest relatives, the chimpanzees, we are frugivores. Humans originated in tropical Africa and our dietary biology is still that of a tropical specialized fruit-eater. Therefore tropical fruits are the primary food type in the human species-appropriate diet. Read more about this here.

And, as tropical frugivores, we have evolved with the nutrition of tropical fruits. Therefore, they are the primary component of our species’ biologically appropriate diet.

Humans are specialized in fruit-eating

Humans have a frugivorous past and biological adaptations to fruit-eating. Thus tropical fruits, as their species-appropriate food, do not over-stress the digestive, detoxification, and elimination systems, as the human body has evolved to do so. Let’s explore:

Here are just a few examples of adaptations in humans that make fruit-eating really easy, tasty, and healthy for us:

  • Complex hand with opposable thumbs, perfect for fruit picking and holding
  • Dentition typical for frugivorous primates
  • Sensory and instinctual cues: ripe fruits (attractive look, smell, and taste)
  • Loss of vitamin C genes is a unique trait shared by highly frugivorous mammals
  • Trichromatic specialized color vision (optimal to detect fruits) in frugivorous primates
  • Find a detailed article on frugivore characteristics in humans here.

And if this list has not yet convinced you that our biological characteristics are perfect for eating fruits, watch a dog trying to pick a berry from a bush with his snout – because he can’t use his paws… it is one of the cutest things to watch, but… he just couldn’t do it. I helped him with my primate hand. And, try offering a mango to your cat… etc.

But let’s dive into the difference between tropical and temperate fruits in terms of health:

Humans have co-evolved with tropical – not temperate – fruits!

Our evolutionary history with foods matters to understand our species-appropriate diet. The outcome of the mutualistic evolution between humans and fruits is a nearly optimal nutritional match, with high nutritional value and low toxicity (i.e., adapting to the plant’s protective toxic compounds in seeds or unripe fruits or inedible foods).

As tropical frugivores, no wonder most tropical fruits are edible for us!

The dispersal syndrome: fruits evolve because of the frugivore

Have we co-evolved with tropical fruits? Fruits of most tropical plants are relatively big, colorful, and aromatic in smell and taste, that pleases primates (inclusive humans).

Primates are relatively large seed-dispersing mammals, which can hold and transport bigger seeds with their complex hands and are sweet-lovers – unlike birds, which swallow seeds and mainly go for small sour fruits (see below). It’s widely accepted that fruits and the frugivore co-evolve:

The dispersal syndrome describes that the evolution of fruits trait (size, color, and scent) is driven by the choice of the animal that eats them. This is why tropical fruits tastes so good! On the other side, the seed disperser evolves anatomical and physiological traits to like, handle and digest the food, in this case the fruit (see frugivore adaptations above).

Does the nutritional value of fruits also evolve with the frugivore?

But what about nutritional traits? Do those coevolved fruits also have optimized nutrition for primates? This concept of “species-appropriate” diet is more difficult to prove, but food choices and foraging are certainly adaptive traits that significantly impact a species’ survival and reproduction.

Fact is, that only topical habitats offer enough food to sustain bigger frugivorous mammals (and primates in particular) provided by the nutrition of (mainly) relatively big and sweet fruits during the whole year. Read more on that here.

Here is where we can rely on instinctual knowledge of animals: they eat only what they find appealing as food for a reason. Heck, animals were even found to self-medicate in the wild. Animals won’t eat what is not suitable and safe for them in the wild. And their diet in the wild has to deliver the nutrition they need to ensure the species’ survival and reproduction (evolutionary way).

The same is true for humans! The difference is that we alter the smell and taste of non-food items through cooking, seasoning, and sweetening, in such a way, that we have learned to like it. Interestingly, after extended periods of raw eating, most report disliking cooked foods they once liked.

Temperate fruits have not evolved with primates – but birds?

The healthiest fruits for humans are those that are dispersed by primates, not birds. Most acidic fruits we eat are originally “bird fruits” that have been cultivated in order to be edible for humans:

To find out if a fruit has evolved as a food source with a specific animal, we need to find out if the animal is a seed-disperser of the fruit – of the original “ancient” fruit before humans cultivated them. In the tropics, primates are important seed dispersers of fruits.

In temperate zones, it is mainly birds and mammals natives to temperate regions (like rodents, foxes, badgers, etc.). Thus some fruits are better suitable for bird fruits than for mammals. On a side-note: seed-dispersing is complex and some fruits are eaten by birds and mammals. For the sake of better understanding, the concepts are being simplified and reflect tendencies, not absolutes!

Birds eat acidic fruits, mammals eat sweet fruits

Generally, birds are the dispersers of smaller, more acidic fruits. Birds ingest the (small) seeds, and in some cases, avian digestion helps germination! In the wild, most “bird fruits” do not taste good to us, and often they are toxic. Birds disperse mainly seeds from the canopy, which also includes vines.

In the tropics, there are uncountable fruits suitable for birds. Birds eat different types of fruits, but acidic fruits with small ingestible seeds are a perfect fit.

The sweeter, sometimes starchy, fleshy and often bigger and big-seeded fruits are favored by primates. Those type of fruits and are a perfect fit with their complex hands and preference for sweet taste. They also provide more energy and nutrition, which is essential for larger mammalian animals like apes (but also larger birds that like to eat sweet fruits, like toucans).

Unlike primates, birds cannot taste sweetness – except for hummingbirds which are sweet nectar-eaters (nectarivore).

Generally birds do taste sour (acidic). Humans, and omnivores that naturally eat sweet foods with simple sugars (fruits), are able to taste sweet. But not carnivores and granivores (grain eaters, like birds)!

Are temperate fruits “bird food” which we have cultivated to suit human consumption?

In temperate climates there are simply no large wild sweet fruits for primates, and thus no frugivorous primates exist there! This is one more indications that temperate climates are not the optimal environmental condition for humans. Let’s look at the evolutionary background of fruits and seed-disperser in temperate climates:

Most fruits that grow in temperate climates have a high acid content and lower sugar content than sweet fruits (tropical fruits). Before humans have cultivated temperate fruits extensively, they were smaller and more acidic – which raises the question:

Have the temperate fruits we eat today evolved as foods for birds?

Temperate fruits have co-evolved with fruit-eater animals native to the temperate zones. Most wild temperate (and sub-tropical) fruits are avian (bird) fruits, not human fruits. In temperate zones, there are no bigger frugivorous mammals because the climate does not support the growth of trees, which could sustain larger frugivores. Thus temperate fruits originally were not edible (and some even toxic) to humans until we cultivated and bred them to be larger and sweeter – and in essence resemble more tropical fruits.

Temperate fruits were small and sour before cultivation

Most of our cultivated fruits in temperate zones are hybrids and were significantly altered in their nutritional and biological properties to be suitable as human foods and please our taste buds. Most of the fruits in the US and Europe result from crossing and extensive breeding. The wild peach, for example, is around 2.5 cm small and tastes “earthy, sweet, sour and salty”, more like “a lentil” (see here). While tropical fruits also went through cultivation and breeding for optimization, it is a fact that wild fruits are perfectly edible for humans and are the main foods of other apes, i.e., chimpanzees. It seems that tropical fruits are also quite difficult to breed for “improved” fruit traits.

The ancient apples, for example, are small and sour, similar to crabapples before we bred them to have bigger and sweeter fruits – to resemble our tropical fruits. Crabapples resemble more the wild rose hip than our modern apples – and are perfect bird food during winter. This article has a detailed description of how perfect crabapples are for birds. The crabapple is just one example to explain why temperate fruits are originally bird food. 

Our modern temperate fruits are still acidic

Despite domesticating fruits for hundreds or thousands of years, there are limitations to breeding temperate and subtropic fruits in terms of acidity and sweetness. Temperate fruits are still smaller and more acidic than bigger sweet tropical fruits. For example, blueberries, nectarines, pomegranates, apples, cherries, and oranges all have a pH between around 2.9 and 4.5 (values from here). Sweet tropical fruits, like papaya, mango, cantaloupe, and bananas, range somewhere from 5 to 6.6 pH.

Eating acid or underripe fruits is also the main reason that raw vegans see dental erosion – a problem birds luckily cannot experience.

Are temperate fruits healthy, too?

Most temperate and acidic fruits have evolved as food for seed-dispersing “birds”. Can a mammalian frugivore thrive on fruits for birds?

We are tropical frugivores.

Can we still enjoy the cultivated temperate fruits we love? Yes, because we have sped up evolution through cultivation, but our original and optimal foods that can sustain us are tropical foods that we have evolved to eat. But temperate fruits are not optimal for us because we haven’t co-evolved with those fruits and their nutritional and phytochemical makeup, like flavonoids, alkaloids, acids, and other potent chemicals. That said, eating temperate fruits as an addition is perfectly fine, as locally grown fruits that ripen on the tree are superior in quality.

Learn more about the biologically appropriate diet of humans:

Go to How to do the Frugivore Diet


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About the author

Martina Spaeni, MSc in Biology

"We are frugivores - specialized fruit-eaters!"

It was passion at first sight when I came across the intriguing concept that humans are adapted to a high-fruit diet, similar to chimpanzees. As someone trained in evolutionary biology and anthropology, I had to start digging deeper! I'm not an academic scientist, but I seek knowledge and health by connecting the dots. Thus, after seeing enough convincing evidence, I started eating a frugivore diet to test it on myself... and saw changes in health I had never imagined. Now, my main focus is to gather biological evidence and answer the question:

Are We Frugivores?

Hey, dear fellow seeker of truth in nutrition and regeneration, I'm Martina, an independent researcher with a focus on the species-appropriate diet of humans and biological detoxification.

My background so far:
M.Sc. in Biology, Ecology, University of Zurich, UZH
B.Sc. in Biology, University of Zurich
Nutrition Science Course at Stanford Center for Health Education
Certified Regenerative Detoxification Specialist
Overcoming my autoimmune disease naturally
A family with a strong background in natural remedies, with my father being a well-known herbalist and chemist.

My great passion is exploring the ancestral, original ecological niche of humans and the potential to self-regenerate within this paradise habitat we are biologically adapted to. I connect scientific studies with holistic, ancient knowledge and real-life experiences.

I aim to raise awareness of the toxic overload of the world and our bodies and how to detox efficiently by sticking to the ecological niche and diet we are adapted to. We desperately need this reliable and easy-to-use compass within the profit-driven jungle of artificial dietary concepts nd overcomplicated (mis)information. Know your ecology... and finally, everything makes sense. To heal our bodies, we need to find out who we are in nature without letting our cultural filters get in the way.

I'm grateful to be given the opportunity to use my educational background in biological sciences, combined with natural healing knowledge, common sense, and intuition, to put out information to the best of my ability.

I'm 100% independently working in service to those ready for great change towards a loving, regenerating world.



Are we frugivores?

Exploring the species-appropriate diet of humans.

We challenge the dietary classification of humans as omnivores. Why does this matter? Because knowing our evolutionary, species-specific diet is the compass in the ever-growing contradictory diet and health jungle.

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